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    教育頭條 > 高中歷史 > 高中歷史重大改革,戊戌變法考點歸納及答題滿分金句

    高中歷史重大改革,戊戌變法考點歸納及答題滿分金句

    高中歷史 12-14 瀏覽量: 分享:
    歷史上重大改革是歷來都是考試重要考點,下面是三好網高中歷史老師給大家帶來高中歷史重大改革之戊戌變法,考點歸納及答題滿分金句,助力考試高分!
     
     
    一、背景
     
    1、國際局勢:發展資本主義是大勢所趨(歐美第二次工業革命;議會改革,文官制度進一步完善資本主義)
    2、民族危機:甲午戰爭戰敗,激發了救亡圖存的民族意識
    3、經濟基礎:19世紀末民族資本主義初步發展
    4、思想基礎:西方近代思想傳入;資產階級維新思潮的興起
    5、階級基礎:民族資產階級登上政治舞臺
     
    二、變法內容
     
    1、政治上:允許臣民上書言事,裁撤冗員,澄清吏治
    2、經濟上:中央設立礦務鐵路總局、農工商總局,提倡和獎勵農工商業發展,取消旗人寄生特權
    3、軍事上:裁汰舊軍,建立新式軍隊,軍隊改用西法訓練,擴建海軍
    4、文教上:改革科舉制度,廢八股,將各省大小書院、祠廟改為兼中學和西學的學校。創辦各種專業學堂,派人赴日本留學
     
    三、失敗原因
     
    1、根本原因:民族資本主義發展很不充分,資產階級維新派力量弱小
    2、維新派缺乏堅強的組織領導
    3、依靠有名無實的皇帝
    4、封建頑固勢力十分強大
    5、沒有觸動封建土地所有制,脫離群眾,缺乏廣泛的群眾基礎
    6、對極少數帝黨官僚和帝國主義抱有幻想
    7、國際環境:19世紀主要資本主義國家向帝國主義階段過渡加緊侵略中國
     
    四、影響
    1、是一場自上而下的資產階級性質的改良運動
    2、是一次愛國救亡的政治運動,激發了人民的愛國熱情
    3、是近代中國第一次思想解放的潮流,促進了中國人民的覺醒
    4、有利于民族資本主義的發展
    5、是一場資產階級變革社會制度的初步嘗試
    6、維新派改易風俗等主張,有利于促進社會生活的改變
    7、歷史教訓:資產階級的改良道路在半殖民地半封建的中國是行不通的
     

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